by Jean Moisset
Carl Jung thought that extrasensory perceptions (ESP) are synchronicities. Today, certain parapsychologists consider that this is the case for most of the interior sensory perceptions (ISP) and mystical perceptions or that at least the later could be explained by synchronicity. The author supplements this hypotheses with 7 related factors : belief, contagion, catalysis, mirror, cortical, quantum and unity. In a perspective which has no rapport with the above, we note that recently scientists have postulated the existence of universes parallel to the one in which we live. Before further discussion, we must make clear the distinction between the great universe composed of the innumerable visible and invisible galaxies and our local galactic island-universe we call the Milky Way. The other island-universes are certainly not very different from ours. Their distribution is of a fractal nature and must be auto-similar, which will probably be confirmed by more precise astronomical observations in the future.
The creation of multiple universes
Let us recall that according to Jung, synchronicity is a coincidence charged with a sense (meaning) between the interior psychic state of a person and an event of the objective exterior universe. We might also add the synchronicity between the psychic state of two or several persons (telepathy) without an exterior physical event. If we compare ISP and mystic phenomena with synchronicity, we note that they sometimes have a certain resemblance. In both cases the phenomena are spontaneous (space-time being transcended), hard to reproduce and practically unexplainable scientifically. Moreover, in synchronicity and parapsychology we have never detected a medium transporting information or energy. This medium seems to be necessary since it is a question of a non-causal and archetype correlation at an unconscious level in an instantaneous fashion whatever the distance separating the subjects, or the subject of an event. This remark can be applied to quantum non-separability which could be a form of synchronicity according to the eminent physicist Wolfgang Pauli, David Bohm and Paul Davies (Penguin Books, 1995, pages 160 to 163).
Today, based upon the inflationary theory, physicists think that life and conscience appeared in our universe by chance or coincidence because of the existance of favorable conditions and physical constants, and that the other universes are sterile . But of course there is no proof that it is so. Some scientists have speculated that the universe is self productive, that is, a sort of enormous fractal bubble which continually regenerates itself. It would be composed of numerous bubbles which would then generate other bubbles ad infinitum. The universe would then be eternal and life would appear in all possible forms (Andrei Linde - Pour la science, January 1995). Other worlds probably exist which could be called anti-universes because there characteristics would be just the inverse of the those we know.
The antimatter universe
In this article, we found it useful to complete the synchronistic explanation of ISP and mystic phenomena by 7 related factors : belief, contagion, catalysis, mirror, cortical, quantum and unity. This hypothesis will also be reinforced by the theory of fractals (certain of which are of a temporal nature according to an idea of Dr. Larcher, former president of the international Metaphysical Institute).
Pick people at random and ask them if they have encountered coincidences. The answer will almost always be yes. But if you ask them if they know what synchronicity means, only one in a hundred will know. According to the dictionary, a coincidence is several events which happen simultaneously at random, that is, following a combination of circumstances. But some of these coincidences, which JUng name synchronicities, are more complex, are charged with meaning and leave a profound and troubled impression upon those concerned. Synchronicity can be considered as an instantaneous and spontaneous connection between the mind and matte, between the interior psyche of the observer and the objective external world.
The subject of coincidences was already studied in ancient Greco-Roman times. Our ancestors were convinced that they were omens or signs and that their existed a hidden link between an observed sign and future events. The prophets and oracles used them to foretell the future. Platon's transcendental images, Pythagore's "affinity of all things", as well as the unitary visions of Plotin and Heraclite are close to the thinking of Jung. Moreover, the concepts concerning chance of the chinese indicate that they understood synchronicity. For them it signified "echo influence", meaning that events have echoes between them. The aztecs of Mexico expressed their concept of synchronicity in their calendars and the Naskapis in their "Labrador dreamers". Astrology is an excellent example of the use of synchronicity. For example, between the position of the planets and the date of birth of a person and the destiny and character of the person. The astronomer-astrologer Kepler had a great influence upon the psychologist Jung and the physicist Pauli who introduced the principle of synchronicity in their sciences. According to Jung the theory of signatures of the doctor-alchemist Paracelse is a form of synchronicity. However, the two greatest precursors were Liebnez with his theory of nomads and Schopenhauer who considered that the secret of our world resides in the fundamental unity of all things. We can also mention several others: Bachelard with his "Intuition of the instant", the surréalists, and especially Kammerer with his theory of series. After the discovery individual unconsciousness by Freud, his favorite disciple, Jung, founded analytical psychology based notably upon the idea of collective unconsciousness and the archetypes which could explain the creation of synchronicities.
Within the multitude of facts or information received, naturally there are coincidences from time to time, that is chance encounters or simultaneous events which resemble each other. Such coincidences are in general rather trivial and can be explained by the laws of probability. For example, you run across friends of neighbors when on vacation, or when speaking with a stranger you find that both of you have a friend in common. Other examples: you happen to be thinking of your cousin Celine who usually only calls once a month and she calls you a few moments later. You say two words to your wife and several seconds later you hear the same words on the television.
The law of series
The law of series was studied by the biologist Kammerer. This law can be defined as: the repetition of identical or analogous events, things or symbols in space or time; for example: the announcement of several similar accidents on the same day, a series of strange events experienced by someone on the same day which are either happy ones (a period of good luck) or unfavorable (disastrous) ones, or the repetition of unexpected similar events. For example, you are invited to dinner and you are served a roast beef and you note that you were served the same menu the day before at your uncle's home and the day before that at your cousin's home. In a lottery the same number is drawn in several successive drawings (series in time) or several consecutive numbers are drawn in the same drawing (series in space). Coincidences and series are a part of our daily lives. We personally consider them to be important but it is difficult to share the interest with others. This is also true concerning synchronicity.
Significant coincidences or synchronicities
We sometimes encounter a coincidence which presents a mysterious character and leaves us with a troubled and indefinable sensation. We consider it as a sign that the coincidence has a meaning and is significant. In this case the psyche of the person concerned is more involved than in the simple coincidence. Moreover, the probability of a repetition is minimal. In these cases we have the personal impression that we exist in a universe which is usually completely indifferent to our humble personage. Jung defined synchronicity as : "a temporal coincidence without causal effect between a given psychic state and one or more exterior objective events giving a parallelism of sense with this momentary subjective state; production of the inverse also being possible. For example : "I have been living in Nice for several months and today I am suffering terribly from a stiff neck. The last time I had this problem was when I was still living in Paris. This morning I decide to do some shopping on a street named doctor x, and there I met my parisian doctor who is attending a medical congress in Nice. Not only was I thinking of my doctor and meet him one hour later but it happened on a street named doctor X. There are also categories of synchronicity outside the basic definition given above. Some synchronicities occur shifted with respect to time (premonitions for the future) or with respect to space (clairvoyance), and which cannot be verified until after having happened. Other cases of synchronicity happen by instantaneous thought between two persons without an exterior objective event (telepathy). There are also synchronicities of omens which consist in the perception of symbolic signs (often numbers) by a person, announcing the arrival of a favorable or disagreeable event without an indication of its exact nature. Finally, there exist multiple, historic and genealogical or family synchronicities, particularly found with twins. From a practical point of view, a significant coincidence arriving advisedly could help us make a decision, convince us to persevere in an effort thus enabling us to overcome our discouragement, and thus ensure success in our undertakings.
An explaination of synchronicity
How can we best explain the concept of synchronicity ?
According to Jung, there exists a collective subconscious situated in a dimension outside that of space-time which is at the same time the memory of humanity and the soul of the universe. It is a sort of cosmic supra-conscience to which we are connected by our personal subconscience. Within this collective subconsciousness are found "centers of potential psychic energy" called archetypes. From a practical point of view, a significant coincidence arriving advisedly could help us make a decision, convince us to persevere in an effort thus enabling us to overcome our discouragement, and thus ensure success in our undertakings. Even though they are indiscernible directly, we can establish the following classification based upon the ideas of Jung : the persona (me), the shadow (personal subconscience), the anima (complementary female contained in the male subconscious) or animus (the inverse situation); archetypes representing themes, myths, symbolic images or dreams of humanity, or models of instinctive behavior. In a heterogeneous inventory we can cite the principal ones : the cosmic, guardian angles, paradise, fairy tales, the devil, hell, night, mother, father, grandfather, the old sage, the hero, the strong man, the seducer, the femme fatale, the ideal woman, the baby, the family, the breast, birth, death, love, hate, incest, etc. We can add numbers and the id (self) which are also important archetypes. Situated on the border between mind and matter, the archetypes catalyze (that is they create by their mere presence) synchronicities by a sort of mirror relationship between the psychic state and the exterior objective universe. This sends to the person concerned a reflection of his worries or his present or future situation in the form of events marked by synchronous symbols. Certain circumstances are propitious for the emergence of synchronicities. For example: states of spiritualism and mysticism or modification of conscience, very close emotional ties (the case of twins), dramatic situations, grave illness, social and family difficulties, psychic problems, search for spiritual fulfillment, artistic creation, scientific discoveries, forecast of happy or unhappy events, an archetype help or protection... . We should also mention genealogical coincidences and historical retro-synchronicites (the lincoln-Kennedy, Saint Lous-Louis XVI and Napoleon-Hitler cases.
An hypothesis with important consequences
The concept of synchronicity, a sort of creative and significant coincidence, would have important consequences concerning our vision of man and the universe. Human beings, things and events would be connected in an acausal fashion and be subjacent among themselves by the sense and resemblance (instead of cause and effect) and with the total universe. Most of the mystic and PSI phenomena, which would in fact be synchronicities, could be explained. There would be no transmission of energy or information, but efflorescence, or correlation, identity or instantaneous and fugitive identity or unity between human beings and/or things. Thus, a new approach to the mystery of life and death would become possible. The non-separability of particles in quantum physics would be a form of synchronicity, thus surprising anthropic type coincidences would confirm that the universe seems to have been conceived to permit the presence of life and the conscience.
Let us cite:
The constants and initial conditions of the universe (mass and charge of particles, fundamental forces, size of atoms, speed of light, formation of hydrogen and carbon atoms, etc.); - The coincidence between atomic and astronomic numbers; - The coincidences between numbers invented by man and those resulting from man's observation of the universe. Synchronicity would permit us to take another approach to reality, where time would be transcended. Finally, synchronicity would give us access to a timeless reality surpassing the mental and biological contingencies in which we are enclosed. It would transcend the world of forms and phenomena which maintain us in causality. As a kind of flash, it would enlighten the hidden unity, first between ourselves and then other beings, things and the ALL, somewhat like the NDE and EMI (experience of immanent death).